Additional References

Ablon, Lillian, Martin C. Libicki and Andrea A. Golay. Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data: Hackers' Bazaar. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2014. Also available in print form.

Goncharov, Max, “Russian Underground Revisited,” Cybercriminal Underground Economy Series, 2014,

Grier, Chris, et al. 2012. Manufacturing compromise: the emergence of exploit-as-a-service. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on Computer and communications security (CCS '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 821-832.

Herr, Trey, and Richard M. Harrison. Cyber Insecurity: Navigating the Perils of the Next Information Age. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016. Print.

"How We Go Deeper To Protect You From New Threats". N. p., 2013. Web.

Brian Krebs, “Carberp Code Leak Stokes Copycat Fears”, June 13th, 2013,

Martin, Sean, CISSP. "The Making Of A Cybercrime Market". CSO Online. N. p., 2017. Web.

Schiffman, Mike. "A Brief History Of Malware Obfuscation: Part 1 Of 2". Cisco Blogs. N. p., 2017. Web.

Shakarian, Jana, and Andrew T. Gunn. "Exploring Malicious Hacker Forums." Cyber Deception: Building the Scientific Foundation. Ed. Paulo Shakarian. New York City: Springer, 2016. 259-82. Print.

Sood, Aditya K., Richard J. Enbody, Crimeware-as-a-service—A survey of commoditized crimeware in the underground market, International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 28-38.

Thomas, Kurt, et al. Framing Dependencies Introduced by Underground Commoditization, Workshop on the Economics of Information Security. 2015. Web.