The following post consists of an introduction by Paul Triolo and Graham Webster, followed by a collaborative translation by Elsa Kania, Samm Sacks, Paul Triolo, and Graham Webster.
By Paul Triolo and Graham Webster
With the 19th Party Congress coming next month and the 4th Chinese-convened World Internet Congress (WIC) soon to follow, China’s digital policy authorities this month held a publicity-filled Cybersecurity Week, and the Party’s leading journal on theory, Qiushi, published an important article from a previously unknown entity under the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC).
article, which a team of analysts has translated in full below, outlines the
major elements of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s strategic thinking on one of
Chinese cyberspace policy’s watchwords: 网络强国 (wǎngluò qiángguó). It’s a pithy formulation in Chinese
that can be translated as “cyber superpower,” or “building China into a
national power in cyberspace,” and the strategic concept attached to it ties together
a series of concepts and initiatives that Xi has pushed in major speeches and
the Chinese government has moved to enact.
The CAC “Theoretical Studies Center Group,” apparently making its debut here, draws on the legitimacy of its Xi-established parent organization and the special status of the journal Qiushi to provide an authoritative synthesis of recent strategic thinking, attributed to Xi, on how to take China from being a cyber power to being a cyber superpower—a goal that implies rough parity with the United States. This comes as U.S.–China cyberspace dialogue continues in a piecemeal fashion across several official channels, although a dedicated dialogue on “law enforcement and cybersecurity” announced in April (and alluded to in the article below) has not yet met.
According to the CAC authors, China’s strategy calls for developing capabilities and governance capacity in four major baskets: managing Internet content and creating “positive energy” online; ensuring general cybersecurity, including protecting critical information infrastructure; developing an independent, domestic technological base for the hardware and software that undergird of the Internet in China; and increasing China’s role in building, governing, and operating the Internet globally. The essay’s authors outline this wide-reaching set of goals under the unifying banner of that four-character phrase, wǎngluò qiángguó.
The essay also sets the stage for what will likely be consequential new pronouncements by Xi at next month’s 19th Party Congress on the topic of cyberspace. Before, during, or shortly after the Party Congress, Xi is almost certain to expand on the proposition, unveiled at the WIC in 2015, that it is necessary to build a “community of shared destiny in cyberspace.” That speech also included Xi’s proposal of the “Four Principles and Five Propositions” on cyberspace (see appendix), key guideposts in the Chinese government approach to global cyber issues. The emerging legal and regulatory framework for Chinese cyberspace, with the Cybersecurity Law that went into effect June 1 at its center, can already be viewed as progress toward implementing the cyber superpower strategy described here.
Now, the Chinese government is on the verge of further advancing another aspect of this strategy: operationalizing the concept of cyber sovereignty at an international level. An Action Plan associated with the March International Strategy for Cooperation in Cyberspace alludes to China’s plans to push for further cooperation on cyber issues internationally. In that context, as cyberspace policy dialogue moves forward internationally, CAC’s Theoretical Studies Center Group below provides an important guide to Xi and the Party leadership’s overall agenda on these issues and where to look next for Chinese leadership on cyberspace issues.
Translation: “Deepening the Implementation of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s Strategic Thinking on Building China into a Cyber Superpower: Steadily Advancing Cybersecurity and Informatization Work”
By: Theoretical Studies Center Group, Cyberspace Administration of China
Source: Qiushi, September 15, 2017, http://www.qstheory.cn/dukan/qs/2017-09/15/c_1121647633.htm
Translated by: Elsa B. Kania, Samm Sacks (Center for Strategic and International Studies), Paul Triolo (Eurasia Group), and Graham Webster (Yale Law School Paul Tsai China Center)
*Note: A selection of important terms marked with an asterisk are further explained in the Appendix below.
- The strategic thinking behind
General Secretary Xi Jinping’s concept of building China into a cyber
superpower is a product of the combination of the basic principles of Marxism
and the practice of Internet development in China under the new historical
conditions. It is also an important part of Party Central’s new concepts, new
thinking, and new strategy for governing the country. General Secretary Xi’s
strategic concept of building China into a cyber superpower constitutes a
scientific summary and theoretical refinement of the path to socialist
governing of the Internet with Chinese characteristics. It is an ideological
guide and follow-on action path to lead the development of the cybersecurity
and informatization industries, and for the development of global Internet
governance. It contributes Chinese wisdom* and provides the China Program,*
reflecting the obligations and responsibilities of the leaders of a great
- Cybersecurity and informatization
are a single body with two wings, the two wheels of a single drive, and require
unified planning, unified deployment, unified promotion, and unified
implementation. We must thoroughly implement the important speeches and
instructions of General Secretary Xi; strengthen planning and coordination on
major issues related to Internet content, cybersecurity, informatized
development, and the international governance of cyberspace; and establish the
“four beams and eight pillars”* of cybersecurity and informatization work.
- Online public opinion work has
become the most important task of propaganda and ideological work. The online
and offline worlds must form concentric circles, and, under the leadership of
the Party, mobilize the people of all nationalities, mobilize all aspects of
enthusiasm, to jointly realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and
the struggle for the China Dream. We are resolute that positive energy is the
overall requirement, and keeping things under control is the last word
Online positive publicity must become bigger and stronger, so that the Party's
ideas always become the strongest voice in cyberspace.
- Without cybersecurity there is no
national security; without informatization there is no modernization. From a
global perspective, cybersecurity threats and risks are increasingly prominent,
and they increasingly penetrate into political, economic, cultural, social,
ecological, national defense, and other areas. We must adopt as a guide the
proposal to “set up the correct view of cybersecurity" as put forward by
General Secretary Xi Jinping to use security to protect development, use
development to promote security, and build a solid cyberspace security shield.
- The network and information
industries represent a new productive force, and a new direction of
development, and it should also be able to take the first step on the basis of
the practice of the new development concepts. At present, China's economic
development has entered into a new normal, and the new normal must have a new
impetus. We use informatization to cultivate new kinetic energy, and use the
new kinetic energy to promote new development, giving full play to the impact
of information technology on economic and social development, so that hundreds
of millions of people have more of a sense of sharing in the results of
- General Secretary Xi has
proposed the “four principles”* to
promote changes to the global Internet governance system and the “five
propositions”* for constructing a community of common destiny in cyberspace,
and has contributed the China Program and Chinese wisdom for promoting global
Internet development and management. At present, cyberspace has become a new
field of competition for global governance, and we must comprehensively
strengthen international exchanges and cooperation in cyberspace, to push
China's proposition of Internet governance toward becoming an international
- If our party cannot traverse the
hurdle represented by the Internet, it cannot traverse the hurdle of remaining
in power for the long term. We must firmly establish political consciousness,
overall consciousness, core consciousness, a sense of unity, the clear-cut
strengthening of the leadership of the Party, the promotion of construction of
the rule of law, the construction of teams of qualified personnel,
strengthening party-building in the cybersecurity and informatization domain,
and providing a strong guarantee for building China into a cyber superpower.
Since the 18th Party Congress, Party Central with Xi Jinping as the core has attached great importance to cybersecurity and informatization work and has taken perfection of the Internet management leadership system as one of the 60 reform tasks established by the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee—establishing the Central Cybersecurity and Informatization Leading Small Group and planning and coordinating important issues of cybersecurity and informatization in various domains. General Secretary Xi’s foresight and grasp of major trends has been closely linked with China's Internet development and management practices. He has put forward a series of new concepts, new ideas, and new strategies, systematically elaborating on the major theoretical and practical problems of cybersecurity and informatization development and forming a rich, profound, scientific, and systematized body of strategic thinking on building China into a cyber superpower.
The strategic thinking of General Secretary Xi on building China into a cyber superpower is a product of the integration of the basic principles of Marxism and the governance practice of China’s Internet development under new historical conditions, and is an important constituent part of new concepts, new ideas, and new strategies of Party Central in governing the country. General Secretary Xi’s strategic concept of building China into a cyber superpower constitutes a scientific summary and theoretical refinement of the path to socialist governance of the Internet with Chinese characteristics. It is an ideological guide and follow-on action path to lead the development of the cybersecurity and informatization industries, and for the development of global Internet governance. It contributes Chinese wisdom and provides the China Program, reflecting the obligations and responsibilities of the leaders of a great power. In the past five years, under the guidance of Secretary General Xi’s strategic thinking on building China into a cyber superpower, cybersecurity and informatization work has been carried forward steadily, and the top-level design* and the overall structure have been basically established. Online positive energy is more powerful, the main theme is more exalted, cyberspace is getting clearer by the day, and national cybersecurity shielding is being further consolidated, while the role of informationization-driven and -led economic and social development is highlighted, and the masses of people have more of a sense of sharing in the results of Internet development. China’s cyberspace international right to speak (话语权) and influence have significantly improved, and significant achievements have been gained in cybersecurity and informatization development.
1. Strengthen overall planning, coordination, and top-level design. Promote the formation of a new “game of chess” pattern for cybersecurity and informatization work
General Secretary Xi Jinping has emphasized: cybersecurity and informatization are each one of two wings, the two wheels of a single drive, requiring unified planning, unified deployment, unified promotion, and unified implementation. We are thoroughly implementing and fulfilling the spirit of the important speeches and instructions of General Secretary Xi Jinping; strengthening overall planning and coordination for network content, cybersecurity, informatization, and international governance of cyberspace, and other major issues; and establishing the “four pillars” of cybersecurity and informatization work.
Strengthen overall planning and coordination of cybersecurity and informatization work. Since the establishment of the Cybersecurity and Informatization Leading Small Group and its Office—facing the problems of multi-headed management, functional intersections, varying powers and responsibilities, and “nine dragons managing the flood” (九龙治水)—we have strengthened the centralized and unified leadership and coordination of cybersecurity and informatization work, together planning and together deploying cybersecurity and informatization work, establishing a sound coordination mechanism for the work of leading small group members and units, from ministry-level coordination meetings and special topic coordination meetings to daily working-level liaison meetings, and other multi-aspect mechanisms. We have strengthened overall planning and coordination in the management of online content construction, cybersecurity, informatization development, and other aspects, creating a powerful force to promote cybersecurity and informatization work.
Accelerate the introduction of strategic planning for cybersecurity and informatization. Adhere to the preceding strategic planning, focusing on the major development trends of the information revolution, based on the overall situation of the Party and national development, formulating and introducing the “National Informatization Development Strategy,” “National Cyberspace Security Strategy,” and over 90 strategic and institutional documents, so that top-level design and strategic planning are basically completed.
Improve the mechanisms for cybersecurity and informatization work. Accelerate the reform of the Internet management leadership system. After more than three years of efforts, the central, provincial, and municipal three-level cybersecurity and informatization management work system has been initially established, with some provinces’ and cities’ cybersecurity and informatization offices extending toward the county-level, establishing and perfecting mechanisms for supervision over major project consultation, important matters, and major decision-making, such that the new “game of chess” pattern for cybersecurity and informatization work has been basically established.
2. Strengthen the construction and management of online content, and build concentric circles online and offline.
General Secretary Xi has emphasized that online public opinion work must be taken as of the utmost importance to propaganda and ideological work. We must establish online and offline concentric circles under the leadership of the Party, to mobilize the people of all nationalities, to mobilize all aspects of enthusiasm, jointly striving for the realization of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the China Dream. As of the end of 2016, our nation had 730 million Internet users, and the number of websites reached 4.82 million. Hundreds of millions of Internet users are accessing information on the Internet and exchanging information, and this has an important impact on channels for knowledge, styles of thinking, and value concepts. We are resolute that positive energy is the overall requirement, and keeping things under control is the last word. Online positive publicity must become bigger and stronger, so that the Party's ideas always become the strongest voice in cyberspace.
Improve and innovate in positive propaganda online. Adhere to the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s series of important speeches and the Party Central’s new concepts, new thinking, and new strategy as of the utmost importance in online propaganda. Strengthen project planning, innovate dissemination methods, make sure the spirit of Xi Jinping’s series of important speeches firmly occupy the first page and first headlines on Internet platforms, correctly guiding online public opinion. Revolving around the overall situation of the Party and national work, launch the “1,000 days of deep restructuring,” etc., series of major propaganda themes, carefully organize propaganda in the online environment, publicize achievements, and conduct typical propaganda. Implement the online theoretical dissemination project, the China Dream practitioners online communication project, and the online literary and artistic creation communication projects, in order to cultivate an active and healthy online culture. Use the international Internet to tell a good story of China, expanding online international communication to more than 200 countries and regions and more than 1 billion overseas users, further improving the online content landing rate.
Resolutely prevent and control online risk. At present, the trend of the transmission of all kinds of social risks to cyberspace is evident, and the Internet has become a transmitter and amplifier of a variety of risks. We must grasp the characteristics and laws of the online public opinion struggle, establish and improve online risk prevention mechanisms, and steadily control all kinds of major public opinion; dare to grasp, dare to control, and dare to wield the bright sword; refute erroneous ideas in a timely manner, comprehensively clean up online rumors, violent videos, and other harmful information; significantly improve public sentiment detection, discernment, and response capabilities; and effectively safeguard national political security.
Enhance the guidance of online public opinion. Starting from the overall situation of the party and the state, effectively propagandize achievements in reform and development and economic livelihood and propaganda and provide policy interpretation on the economic situation. Alleviate doubts and boost confidence. Actively use new technologies and new applications to effectively guide the progression of online public opinion, grasp the evolution and laws of the online public sentiment, prevent hot issues from involving the economic and social livelihood of the people, and prevent mass incidents and public opinion from becoming online ideological patterns and issues. Play an important role in cyber comments and public opinion guidance, and make cyberspace cleaner.
Strengthen the comprehensive management of the online ecosystem. Comprehensively utilize legal, administrative, technical, and other means. Comprehensively strengthen cyber ecological management. Strengthen responsibility of management departments in their areas, and basic website responsibility. Elevate the level of scientization and standardization in work. Improve rapid and coordinated response mechanisms for illegal and regulation-violating information and websites. On issues where netizens display intense concern, improve reporting mechanisms. In 2016, authorities received nearly 40 million reports, and the rate of effective management of harmful information was 92 percent or greater. Implement online projects for the dissemination of outstanding Chinese culture and projects to build online virtue. Use the socialist core value system to ensure cohesion of the people and nourish society. Deepen work on “Clean and Clear (清朗),” “Protecting the Young (护苗),” and the other 20 special actions to create a positive cyber ecosystem for the masses.
3. Construct a cybersecurity assurance system; forcefully safeguard national cyberspace security and interests
General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out: Without cybersecurity there is no national security, and without informatization there is no modernization. From a global perspective, cybersecurity threats and risks are increasingly prominent and increasingly penetrate political, economic, cultural, social, ecological, national defense, and other domains. We have adopted the proposal to “set up the correct view of cybersecurity” put forward by General Secretary Xi Jinping to protect development with security and support security with development, and to construct a solid shield for cyberspace security.
Strengthen the protection of critical information infrastructure security. In the areas of important industries, such as finance, energy, electricity, communication, transportation, and so on, which are integral to economic and social operation, it is necessary to carry out thorough investigation and troubleshooting of risks for the protection of critical information infrastructure security, to guard against risks, and to improve the protection level for critical information infrastructure. Formulate and launch the Measures for a Network Products and Services Security Review (draft), establish and improve the cybersecurity review mechanism, and effectively safeguard cybersecurity and the legitimate rights and interests of the people.
Enhance situational awareness and emergency response capabilities. For increasing cybersecurity situation sensing, incident analysis, tracking and traceability, as well as rapid recovery capabilities after suffering an attack, revise the National Cybersecurity Incident and Crisis Plan, improve mechanisms for cybersecurity monitoring and early warning and response, monitor and engage in early warning for major cybersecurity events in real time, enhance cybersecurity emergency command capabilities, and properly manage a series of major cybersecurity events.
Firm up the foundation of cybersecurity work. Formulate and implement Some Opinions on Strengthening National Cybersecurity Standardization Work, and issue over 30 national standards for cybersecurity. Revise and improve the Internet Domain Name Management Methods, optimize the management of IP addresses, domain names, and site records. Convene the National Cybersecurity Week activities, directly involving hundreds of millions of Internet users, and improve the broad masses of people’s cyber security awareness and skills.
Protect the people’s and masses’ online rights and interests. Adhere to the concept of cybersecurity for the people and cybersecurity relying on the people; regulate Internet companies and institutions on the collection, use, and cross-border transfer of personal information. Deepen and initiate special governance actions regarding search engines, navigation websites, etc. Take strong measures against personal information leaks, telecommunications fraud, and other illegal and criminal activities.
4. Give full play to the leading role of informatization; make the Internet bring greater benefit to society and serve the people
As General Secretary Xi has pointed out, the network and information industries represent a new productive force, and a new development direction, and they should be the first step in the new development concept. At present, our country’s economy has entered a new normal, and the new normal needs a new vitality. Taking informatization, we can cultivate a new energy, and use that new energy to promote new development, giving full play to informatization for economic and social development, allowing hundreds of millions of people even more access to the common development achievements of the Internet.
Accelerate indigenous innovation of core technologies in the information field. With eyes on the goal of seizing the high ground of information technology systems development, advance high-performance computing, quantum communications, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, big data, core chips, operating systems, and other cutting-edge technological research. Increase investment in integrated circuits, basic software, and industrial control software, etc. Obtain breakthroughs and unceasingly narrow the gap with developed countries in high-performance computers, quantum communications, 5G mobile, etc., becoming a global leader in all fields.
Vigorously develop the digital economy. Give informatization a role as an essential factor in increasing production rates, expanding new space for economic development, advancing coordinated development of the Broadband China strategy, and the Internet Plus Action Plan, etc. Promote the deep integration of the Internet and real economies, accelerate the digitalization of traditional industry. In Zhejiang Province China has set up a national information economy demonstration zone. In Tianjin and 12 other cities the government has established cross-border e-commerce pilot zones. Actively implement the Big Data Strategy. In Guizhou, Shanghai, etc., the government has established national big data comprehensive pilot zones. Promote the healthy development of big data centers and cloud services. At present, the size of our country’s digital economy has leapt to number two in the world, becoming an economic growth engine and bright spot, and bringing new economic and social development opportunities.
Make the Internet and information industry both big and strong. Persist in coordinating the development of support with that of rules (坚持鼓励支持和规范发展并行), in the simultaneous development of policy guidance with laws and supervision, creating a favorable market environment for the development and building of the Internet. The global influence of Internet companies like Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu, Huawei, etc., is on the rise. One after the other, many innovative and vital Internet companies have emerged, playing an important role in promoting stable growth and employment, and benefitting the people. In 2016 on a global list of top 20 companies by market value, Chinese companies occupied seven slots.
Make information services more convenient and beneficial for the people. In line with people’s expectations and demand, accelerate the popularization of informatized services. Across 27 provinces and 100,000 administrative villages, the government is carrying out broadband construction and upgrading. The level of Internet infrastructure is rising. Thoroughly promote “Internet Plus for government services,” build the national e-government overall plan coordinated mechanism, and carry out the healthy development of e-government. Accelerate a new type of smart city construction, coordinating departments and borders (加强新型智慧城市建设部际协调). Organize and launch new-type smart city evaluation work. For the first time, two smart city standards have become international standards. The government has carried out five large projects using the Internet for targeted poverty alleviation.
Promote the deepened development of military-civilian integration for cybersecurity and informatization. Carry out cybersecurity and informatization military-civilian integration demonstration projects. Deepen innovation of the cybersecurity and informatization military-civilian integration system and policies. Accelerate the launch of building major cybersecurity and informatization military-civilian integration. Support the launch of Beidou indigenous chip research and development and global use, and integration of military natural resources. Gripping fingers to make a fist (握指成拳), and integrating into synergy, with great effort, advance the military to serve the people, and the people to prepare the military.
5. Taking the Four Principles and the Five Propositions (“四项原则”“五点主张”) as the guide, strengthen our country’s international voice (话语权) and influence
General Secretary Xi has, on many important international occasions, expounded upon international Internet governance theory and, in particular, has raised advancing the Four Principles of global Internet governance system transformation and the Five Propositions of building a cyberspace community of shared destiny. He has contributed Chinese wisdom and the China Program to advancing the development of global Internet governance. At present, cyberspace has already become a new field in global governance. Taking General Secretary Xi’s Four Principles and Five Propositions as the guide, we must comprehensively strengthen cyberspace international exchange and cooperation, advance China’s propositions on governing cyberspace toward becoming an international consensus, and raise China’s cyberspace international right to speak and influence.
Deepen participation in and influence over international Internet governance processes. The International Strategy of Cooperation in Cyberspace comprehensively introduced China’s relevant policy positions. Deepen cyber cooperation with the United Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the BRICS. Actively advance the internationalization of Internet name and digital address allocation, unceasingly expand the common understanding of the development of Internet governance, and continuously deepen cooperation. For the first time, the digital economy has become a theme of the G20 summit. China’s G20 Digital Economy Development and Cooperation Proposal was an innovative achievement of the summit.
Strengthen self-directed (以我为主) governance platform building. Establish the World Internet Congress. Through thought exchange, technology exhibits, trade cooperation, and concentrated shared knowledge, obtain great achievement. Successfully build an international platform that is interoperable between China and the world, and a China platform that shares common governance with the international Internet, advance global Internet governance system change, and play an active role in building a cyberspace community of shared destiny.
Deepen cyberspace international exchange and cooperation. Strengthen China-U.S. cyberspace-related exchanges and dialogues. Controlling differences and promoting consensus, work with U.S. Internet companies and think tanks to strengthen joint activities and successfully conduct China-U.S. Internet forums and high-level China-U.S. expert meetings on international cyberspace rules, etc. Deepen China-Russia cyberspace cooperation, implement bilateral head-of-state joint announcements and relevant work. With Europe, launch digital economy cooperation, successfully hold China-Europe, China-U.K., and China-Germany Internet-related forums. Serve Belt and Road Initiative construction, begin to develop Internet and information cooperation with Belt and Road countries, the China-ASEAN Information Port (东盟信息港), China-Arabia Digital Silk Road Ningxia Hub project (宁夏枢纽工程), etc. Accelerate the building of major projects, with results increasingly emerging.
6. Strengthen the Party’s leadership of cybersecurity and informatization work, provide a strong guarantee of building a national power in cyberspace
As Secretary General Xi Jinping has emphasized, if our Party cannot traverse the hurdle represented by the Internet, it cannot traverse the hurdle of remaining in power for the long term. We firmly set up awareness of the need to uphold political integrity, keep in mind the bigger picture, follow the Party as the core, and act consistently with strengthening Party leadership. Push forward the building of cybersecurity and informatization legislation and human capital, and strengthen Party leadership in building the field of cybersecurity and informatization, while providing a powerful guarantee for building a national power in cyberspace.
Strengthen Party leadership of cybersecurity and informatization work. Persist in taking as an important duty the study of implementing the spirit of Secretary General Xi’s important speeches. Strengthen Party member and cadre study and practice of Secretary General Xi Jinping thought on building a national power in cyberspace. Resolve to safeguard Comrade Xi Jinping as the core of Party Central Committee authority. Safeguard the Party Central Committee’s concentrated and centralized leadership. Guide numerous Party member leaders and cadres in studying, understanding, and using the Internet. Cybersecurity and informatization leading small groups in all regions have a duty to defend the country, to do so conscientiously, and to coordinate implementation of regional cybersecurity and informatization work. Give full play to the role of workers, youth, women, and other groups. Strengthen the role of industry, experts, and think tanks, bringing together the force of all society to push forward the work of cybersecurity and informatization.
Comprehensively push forward cyberspace rule of law. Implement the requirement of governing cyberspace according to law; advance control of cyberspace according to law, management of cyberspace according to law, and cyberspace use according to law (依法管网、依法办网、依法上网). With the Cybersecurity Law as the foundational law for the field of cybersecurity and informatization, push forward Opinions on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in Criminal Cases such as Telecommunication Network Fraud, and other laws that have come out, making the force of laws extend for use in cyberspace. Revise the Internet News Information Service Management Regulations. Enact the Interim Provisions on the Development and Management of Information Services for Instant Messaging and other urgently required preceding documents. Perfect the enforcement mechanism for the cybersecurity and informatization legal system. Establish coordinating work mechanisms for the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Public Security, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, and 12 other departments involved in administration and enforcement. Severely investigate and handle all kinds of online illegal information and activities.
Accelerate cybersecurity and informatization workforce building. Carry out plans for selection and cultivation of cybersecurity and informatization leading talent, high-end talent, next-generation experts, and specialized talent, establishing a premier cyberspace security discipline. Grant 29 universities with doctorate authorization for the cyberspace security discipline and set up national cybersecurity talent and innovation bases. Perfect expert advisory systems. Accelerate building of cybersecurity and informatization high-end think tanks. Provide cybersecurity and informatization work with strong and intelligent support.
Strengthen Party building in the field of cybersecurity and informatization. Pay close attention to ideological and political construction, educating and guiding Party members in strengthening the “Four Awarenesses,” and being steadfast in ideals and beliefs. Firmly develop Party mass line practical teaching exercises and “Three strict three real” (“三严三实”) specialized teaching. Push forward the normalization and systematization of “Two studies one action” (“两学一做”) learning and education. Strictly carry out “One position two responsibilities” (一岗双责) requirements. Earnestly fulfill comprehensive and rigorous management of the Party’s responsibilities. Regarding online management and governance capability, refer to the 900 remaining risks. Set up and perfect relevant system mechanisms, earnestly put discipline and rules at the forefront, with great effort create a devoted, clean, and responsible cyber and informatization cadre force.
中国方案, Zhōngguó Fāng’àn
中国智慧, Zhōngguō zhìhuì
|This term refers broadly to the Chinese government’s efforts to contribute to what it calls “global governance”, particularly on economic issues, and is usually included with the term “Chinese wisdom” to describe broad efforts to share China’s governing experience to improve international institutions. Xi has explained that “Taking the justice of world peace and development as the starting point, we will contribute Chinese wisdom for handling current international relations and contribute the China Program for improving global governance, so that human society should make its own contribution to the various challenges of the 21st century.”|
|“cyber superpower,” “building China into a national power in cyberspace”||网络强国, wǎngluò qiángguó||This term, tough to translate because it can be read as both a goal (to become a “cyber superpower” or a “strong power in cyberspace”) and a process (“building China into a national power in cyberspace”), was one of the key buzzwords of the recent Cybersecurity Week. Unlike some other rhetorical patterns, this phrase unavoidably engages the question of China’s comparative power internationally in the online world. It is hard to conclude that any country other than the United States would today be considered a “cyber superpower,” though when it comes to the China’s influence on global cyberspace governance, the European Union must also be seen as a competing power center.|
The Five Propositions were paired with the Four Principles in Xi’s December 2015 speech, which was seminal for today’s official rhetoric and approach on cyberspace. They are:
1) Accelerate the construction of a global network infrastructure, and stimulating interconnection and interactivity.
2) Build shared platforms for online cultural interaction, and stimulating exchange and mutual learning.
3) Promote innovation and development in the online economy, and stimulating common flourishing.
4) Guarantee cybersecurity and stimulate orderly development.
5) Build the Internet governance system, and stimulate fairness and justice.
|Four Principles||四项原则, sìxiàng yuánzé||
The Four Principles were paired with the Five Propositions in Xi’s December 2015 speech, which was seminal for today’s official rhetoric and approach on cyberspace. They are:
1) Respect for cyber sovereignty.
2) Safeguarding peace and security.
3) Stimulating open cooperation.
4) Building a good order.
|“four beams and eight pillars”||四梁八柱, sìliàng bāzhù||Rather than referring to a sets of four and eight priorities or principles, the “four beams and eight pillars” concept, associated with Xi, refers to an ancient Chinese construction style representing the basic elements of a strong architecture. Source: People’s Daily Overseas Edition|