In analyzing explicit and implicit instructional leadership standards' content, we were most interested in whether the standard included principals' support for teachers, and more specifically, principals’ evaluation of teachers, including observations of teacher practice, feedback, and coaching. A 2017 study conducted by the Institute of Education Sciences indicates that frequent, relevant feedback to teachers and principals can lead to improved outcomes in student achievement, and research by the the Center for Educational Leadership shows that skills in providing feedback and leading professional learning for teachers are fundamental for effective instructional leaders.
Most states (37) attempt to account for how principals are supporting teachers in their instructional standard, but there is also variability in how that is defined and how much detail is included. Standards encompass varied definitions and activities by state such as: providing ongoing, actionable feedback, conducting classroom observations, providing professional development, conducting evaluations in alignment with state regulations, providing adequate time and resources for teacher collaboration, and collaborating with staff to identify student needs.
All states include teacher support as part of their principal evaluation somewhere in their evaluation rubrics, whether as part of an explicit instructional leadership standard, implicit instructional leadership standard, or elsewhere. If teacher support was not included in the instructional standard, it was often part of a human capital management or human resource leadership standard. More than half of states (31) have a standard related to human capital management/human resource leadership that often includes evaluation, support, coaching, recruitment, and/or retention of staff.