James Shires

James Shires is a doctoral student in international relations at the University of Oxford, and a research affiliate at the Oxford Center for Technology and Global Affairs. His research focuses on cybersecurity in the Middle East.

All Work

CYBERSECURITY INITIATIVE
Contesting "Cyber"

The inconsistent application of the prefix “cyber” stems not only from confusion, but also from contest.


CYBERSECURITY INITIATIVE
Exit, Voice, and Cyberspace

Albert Hirschman, in his classic work Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, states that in declining firms, organizations or states can either “exit”...


CYBERSECURITY INITIATIVE
ARPANET; Where did it all start again?

There is said to be a single hook around which much of the scholarship on cyberspace evolved.


The Word 'Cyber' Now Means Everything

And nothing at all.


CYBERSECURITY INITIATIVE
"Cyber Exceptionalism”

In this post we suggest that the concept of cyberspace enables a form of exceptionalism, similar to “American exceptionalism”.


CYBERSECURITY INITIATIVE
Substantive vs. implied definitions: A Mundane stuff or the Wild West?

Descriptions of cyberspace can be split into two main types: substantive and implied.


CYBERSECURITY INITIATIVE
The Connotations of “Cyberspace” Shift From Opportunity to Threat

In many early uses of the term, cyberspace had clear connotations of achievement or approval.


CYBERSECURITY INITIATIVE
Contesting "Cyber"

Over the last few decades there has been a proliferation of the term “cyber”, and commensurate levels of inconsistency.