Price of the Pipe

policy paper | April 15, 2010

    Chiehyu Li James Losey

The speed and price of a broadband connection are two important details about a broadband service that vary greatly between different countries. In comparing prices and speeds of broadband services around the globe, we find that the United States is among the most expensive and slowest of the countries surveyed in this report. Price is one of the main barriers to adoption,[1] and prices for broadband in the U.S. are on the rise.[2] Major steps need to be taken to bridge the speed and price disparities separating the U.S. from other industrialized countries.

   Broadband Service Speed and Price (High Tier)

Country

Downstream

Upstream

Price

Canada[3]

25

7

$67

Denmark[4]

40

2

$72

Finland[5]

24            

1

$67

Hong Kong[6]

100

Unlisted

$38

Japan[7]

200

100

$60

South Korea[8]

100

Unlisted

$29

Sweden[9]

100

100

$46

Taiwan[10]

100

5

$37

U.K.[11]

50

Unlisted

$57

United States[12]

50

20

$145

For this survey we compare price and speeds of both the fastest speeds available (high tier) for residential service, as well as the service equal to or greater than 1 megabit per second (Mbps) or more (low tier), for 10 industrialized nations. The services listed are the cheapest regular monthly rate for broadband, unbundled from other services such as telephone and voice (when available.) Because different speeds are available in the nations surveyed, price (USD) per megabit is used to provide a more direct comparison. Upstream speeds are listed when available but only downstream speeds are compared.

 <p>The United States is the most expensive of the ten countries surveyed for high tier broadband service. The broadband services available internationally include prices as low as $26 a month for a 100 Mbps connection in South Korea and speeds as fast as a 200 Mbps connection in Japan for $60 a month. While broadband service with speeds of 100 Mbps is available in Taiwan for $37 a month, $38 a month in Hong Kong, and $46 a month in Sweden, broadband is half the speed for over three times the price in the U.S. where 50 Mbps service costs $145 a month. Other countries surveyed joining the U.S. in the slower half of high tier speeds cost less than half the price. For exa<img alt="" src="/downloads/costpermb_300.jpg" align="right">mple, 24 Mbps broadband service is available in Finland for $67 a month, 25 Mbps broadband is available in Canada for $67 a month, 40 Mbps broadband is available in Denmark for $72 a month, and 50 Mbps broadband service is available for $57 a month in the U.K.</p>  <p>Comparing the price per megabit ($/Mb) demonstrates how much more expensive broadband is in the United States. Broadband service of 100 Mbps costs $0.29/Mb in South Korea, $0.37/Mb in Taiwan, $0.38 in Hong Kong, and $0.46/Mb in Sweden. In comparison, 50 Mbps service in the U.S. is several times more expensive at $2.90/Mb. In the U.K. a 50 Mbps connection is available for $1.14/Mb, less than half the price of the same speed in the U.S.&nbsp;Canada and Finland are similar to the U.S. with broadband service for $2.68/Mb and $2.79, respectively, but all three are more expensive every other country surveyed. The next most expensive country is Denmark where broadband service is considerably less at $1.80/Mb. In contrast, broadband service of 200 Mbps is available for $.30/Mb in Japan.</p><p><em><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; Broadband Service Speed and Price (Low Tier)
</strong></em></p><table style="width: 3.5in; border-collapse: collapse; margin-left: 6.35pt; margin-right: 6.35pt;" align="left" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="252">  <tbody><tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(84, 141, 212); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Country</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(84, 141, 212); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Downstream</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(84, 141, 212); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Upstream</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(84, 141, 212); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Price</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Canada<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn13"><span>[13]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">2</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">800 Kbps</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$31</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Denmark<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn14"><span>[14]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">2</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">512 Kbps</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$30</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Finland<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn15"><span>[15]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">1</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">512 Kbps</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$36</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Hong Kong<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn16"><span>[16]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">1.5</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Unlisted</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$13</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Japan<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn17"><span>[17]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">1</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">512 Kbps</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$34</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr style="height: 12.55pt;">   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt; height: 12.55pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">South Korea<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn18"><span>[18]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt; height: 12.55pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">8</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt; height: 12.55pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">640 Kbps</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt; height: 12.55pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$26</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Sweden<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn19"><span>[19]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">1</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">1</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$19</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Taiwan<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn20"><span>[20]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">3</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">768 Kbps</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$14</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">U.K.<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn21"><span>[21]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">10</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Unlisted</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border-width: medium medium 1pt; border-style: none none solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color -moz-use-text-color white; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$30</span></p></td>  </tr>  <tr>   <td style="width: 70.75pt; border: medium none; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="71"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">United States<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn22"><span>[22]</span></a></span></p></td>   <td style="width: 68.5pt; border: medium none; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="69"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">1</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 59.6pt; border: medium none; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="60"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">1</span></p></td>   <td style="width: 53.15pt; border: medium none; background: none repeat scroll 0% 0% rgb(218, 229, 242); padding: 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="53"><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;">$35</span></p></td>  </tr> </tbody></table><p>When comparing the low tier broadband service offerings of other countries the United States fairs slightly better with prices closer to the middle of the pack but often for slower speeds. While 10 Mbps broadband service is available for $30 a month in the U.K. and an 8 Mbps connection costs $26 a month in South Korea, in the U.S. slower service of 1 Mbps is considerable more expensive at $35 a month. The same speed of 1 Mbps is available for a similar monthly rate in Japan ($34) and Finland ($36) these rates are much higher than Sweden where 1 Mbps broadband service is available for only $19 a month. Several countries have faster speeds available for much expensive rates than the U.S. For example 1.5 Mbps broadband service costs $13 a month in Hong Kong and a 2 Mbps connection is available for $31 a month in Canada or $30 a month in Denmark. 3 Mbps service in Taiwan costs only $14 a month.</p><p>The U.S. is among the most expensive of the countries surveyed when comparing the price per megabit for low tier broadband service. Broadband service of 1 Mbps is available in Japan for $34/Mb, Finland for $36/Mb and the U.S. for $35/Mb, but all other countries surveyed were considerably less expensive. For example, 1 Mbps broadband service in Sweden costs $19/Mb and 2 Mbps broadband service in Denmark and Canada is less than half the price per megabit of the U.S. at $15.00/Mb and $15.50/Mb, respectively. Less expensive still is Hong Kong, where 1.5 Mbps broadband service is $8.67/Mb, Taiwan where 3 Mbps broadband service costs $4.67/Mb, and South Korea where an 8 Mbps broadband service is available for $3.25/Mb. The U.K. has the least expensive and fastest low tier broadband service: a 10 Mbps connection is $3.00/Mb.</p>  <p>Lack of competition is a major factor influencing the higher prices and slower speeds foun<img alt="" src="/downloads/costpermb_lowspeed.jpg" align="right">d in the U.S.&nbsp;In the National Broadband Plan the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) notes that 96% of households in America have access to 2 or fewer providers,<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn23"><span>[23]</span></a> and prices are higher when only one or two providers are available.<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn24"><span>[24]</span></a> An FCC study found that “non-adopters concerned with cost would be willing to pay, on average, $25 per month for broadband,”<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn25"><span>[25]</span></a> a rate that is available abroad but the current low tier broadband available in the U.S. unbundled from other services is significantly more expensive than this threshold. In addition to increasing access to broadband, adoption efforts must address affordability and overcome market conditions that have resulted in broadband service in the United States being both the slowest, and most expensive of countries surveyed.</p>  <p>For the United States to increase the speed and affordability of broadband requires intervention at the national policy level from both the FCC and Congress is needed including:</p>  <p><span>·<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span>The FCC should immediately begin collecting “more detailed and accurate data on actual availability, penetration, [and] prices” offered by broadband service providers, and make the data publicly available.”<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn26"><span>[26]</span></a></p>  <p><span>·<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span>The FCC should foster wireline-wireline competition by incorporating successful strategies from other leading nations including structural separation and open access, as documented in a recent FCC commissioned report.<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn27"><span>[27]</span></a></p>  <p><span>·<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span>Congress should pursue “dig once” legislation to mandate the installation of high-capacity, open access “dark fiber bundles along all federally-subsidized and direct federal highway projects.”<a name="_ftnref" title="" href="#_ftn28"><span>[28]</span></a></p>  <div><p>&nbsp;</p><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%">    <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn1" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[1]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; According to a Federal Communications Commission report 36% of Americans who have not adopted broadband cite cost as the primary reason. A report from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration documents that price is a main reason for 26.3% of non-adopters. <i>See</i> John B. Horrigan, </span><i><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Broadband Adoption and use in America: OBI Working Papers Series No. 1</span></i><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> p. 5 </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">(</span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Federal Communications Commission 2010</span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">)</span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">, a<i>vailable at </i></span><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-296442A1.pdf">http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-296442A1.pdf</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">(<i>Broadband Adoption and Use in America</i>) <i>and </i></span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">National Telecommunications and Information Administration <i>Digital Nation: 21<sup>st</sup> Century America’s Progress Towards Universal Broadband Internet Access</i> p. 13 (2010) <i>available at </i><a href="http://www.ntia.gov/reports/2010/NTIA_internet_use_report_Feb2010.pdf">http://www.ntia.gov/reports/2010/NTIA_internet_use_report_Feb2010.pdf</a> (<i>Digital Nation</i>).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn2" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[2]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; John Horrigan <i>Home Broadband Adoption 2009: Broadband adoption increases, but monthly prices do too</i>. (Pew Internet and America Life ProjectJune 2009) (<i>Home Broadband Adoption).</i></span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn3" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[3]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bell offers <i>Fibe 25</i> service is $67.95 CAD with no TV bundle after a twelve-month promotional period. Converted March 26, 2010 using Google currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://www.bell.ca/shopping/internet.portal?_nfpb=true&amp;_windowLabel=PrsShpInt_NewAccess_internetBrowse_portlet&amp;PrsShpInt_NewAccess_internetBrowse_portlet_actionOverride=%2Fportlets%2Fpersonal%2Finternet%2Fbrowse%2FgetDetailPage&amp;_pageLabel=PrsShpInt_NewAcc">http://www.bell.ca/shopping/internet.portal?_nfpb=true&amp;_windowLabel=PrsShpInt_NewAccess_internetBrowse_portlet&amp;PrsShpInt_NewAccess_internetBrowse_portlet_actionOverride=%2Fportlets%2Fpersonal%2Finternet%2Fbrowse%2FgetDetailPage&amp;_pageLabel=PrsShpInt_NewAccess</a>. (Visited March 26, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn4" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[4]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Full Rate offers <i>2 MBit </i>service is 399 kr. a month and includes a phone line. An unbundled service is not available. Converted March 26, 2010 using Google currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://www.fullrate.dk/privat/bredbaand/">http://www.fullrate.dk/privat/bredbaand/</a> (translated). (Visited March 26, 2010). </span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn5" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[5]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Elisa offers <i>24M/1M Full Rate </i>service for €49.90 a month in Helsinki. Converted March 26, 2010 using Google currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://www.elisa.fi/yksityisille/laajakaista/laajakaista/hinnat_ja_saatavuus/39/">http://www.elisa.fi/yksityisille/laajakaista/laajakaista/hinnat_ja_saatavuus/39/</a> (translated). (Visited March 26, 2010). </span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn6" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[6]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  Hutchison Global Communications offers 100Mbps broadband Internet service for Hong Kong Dollar 298 per month. 24-month contract is required. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Converted March 26, 2010 using Oanda currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://www.hgcbroadband.com/superbroadband.html">http://www.hgcbroadband.com/superbroadband.html</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"> (translated). (Visited April 1, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn7" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[7]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">NTT FTTH service is for a single home. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Converted March 18, 2010 using Oanda currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar.&nbsp;<a href="http://flets.com/next/index.html">http://flets.com/next/index.html</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"> (translated). (Visited March 18, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn8" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[8]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">SK Telecom Broadband Fiber Internet Pricing. Price is without contract. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Converted March 18, 2010 using Oanda currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://www.skbroadband.com/eng/iproduct/evalley.asp">http://www.skbroadband.com/eng/iproduct/evalley.asp</a> (translated). (Visited</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">: March 18, 2010). </span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn9" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[9]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bredband 2 offers<i> Stockholm OpenNet 100/100 Mbit/s</i> for 329 SEK a month. Converted March 26, 2010 using Google currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar.</span></p>  <p><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://abonnemang.pricerunner.se/pr/bredband/jamfor.php#fs">http://abonnemang.pricerunner.se/pr/bredband/jamfor.php#fs</a>. (Search for Stockholm using post code 11351) (Visited March 26, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn10" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[10]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Service from </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">Chungwa Telecom FTTx. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Converted March 18, 2010 using Oanda currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://www.cht.com.tw/CHTFinalE/Web/Personal.php?CatID=898">http://www.cht.com.tw/CHTFinalE/Web/Personal.php?CatID=898</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://www.cht.com.tw/PersonalCat.php?CatID=898&amp;Module=Fee,Describe">http://www.cht.com.tw/PersonalCat.php?CatID=898&amp;Module=Fee,Describe</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"> (translated). (Visited March 18, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn11" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[11]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Virgin Mobile offers <i>Up to 50 Mb Broadband </i>for £38 a month after a 3 month promotional period when not bundled with a virgin phone line. Converted March 26, 2010 using Google currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://allyours.virginmedia.com/websales/product.do?id=15208">http://allyours.virginmedia.com/websales/product.do?id=15208</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">.&nbsp;(Visited March 26, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn12" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[12]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Verizon offers <i>Fastest Plan</i> through FiOS for $$144.99 when not purchased with a Verizon phone line or TV bundle. Rounded to the nearest dollar. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://www22.verizon.com/Residential/FiOSInternet/Plans/Plans.htm">http://www22.verizon.com/Residential/FiOSInternet/Plans/Plans.htm</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">&nbsp;&nbsp; (Visited: March 18, 2010) </span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn13" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[13]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bell offers <i>Essential Plus</i> service is $31.95 CAD with no TV bundle after a twelve-month promotional period. Converted March 26, 2010 using Google currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://www.bell.ca/shopping/internet.portal?_nfpb=true&amp;_windowLabel=PrsShpInt_NewAccess_internetBrowse_portlet&amp;PrsShpInt_NewAccess_internetBrowse_portlet_actionOverride=%2Fportlets%2Fpersonal%2Finternet%2Fbrowse%2FgetDetailPage&amp;_pageLabel=PrsShpInt_NewAcc">http://www.bell.ca/shopping/internet.portal?_nfpb=true&amp;_windowLabel=PrsShpInt_NewAccess_internetBrowse_portlet&amp;PrsShpInt_NewAccess_internetBrowse_portlet_actionOverride=%2Fportlets%2Fpersonal%2Finternet%2Fbrowse%2FgetDetailPage&amp;_pageLabel=PrsShpInt_NewAccess</a>. (Visited March 26, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn14" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[14]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Full Rate offers <i>Op til 40 Mbit</i> service for169 kr. a month and includes a phone line. Converted March 26, 2010 using Google currency converted and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://www.fullrate.dk/privat/bredbaand/">http://www.fullrate.dk/privat/bredbaand/</a> (translated). (Visted March 26, 2010). </span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn15" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[15]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Elisa offers <i>1M /512 kbit/s</i>&nbsp;€26.90 a month in Helsinki. Converted March 26, 2010 using Google currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. <a href="http://www.elisa.fi/yksityisille/laajakaista/laajakaista/hinnat_ja_saatavuus/39/">http://www.elisa.fi/yksityisille/laajakaista/laajakaista/hinnat_ja_saatavuus/39/</a> (translated). (Visited March 26, 2010). </span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn16" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[16]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">Hutchison Global Communications offers 1.5Mbps broadband Internet service for Hong Kong Dollar 103 per month. 24-month contract is required. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Converted April 1, 2010 using Oanda currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://www.hgcbroadband.com/res_net_bb_powercom.html">http://www.hgcbroadband.com/res_net_bb_powercom.html</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> (translated).&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">(Visited: April 1, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn17" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[17]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Service from </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">J:COM Cable Internet. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Converted March 18, 2010 using Oanda currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar.&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://www.jcom.co.jp/services/net/services/zaq/services.html">http://www.jcom.co.jp/services/net/services/zaq/services.html</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"> (translated). (Visited: March 18, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn18" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[18]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Service from </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">KT QOOK Internet Services. Price is without contract. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Converted March 18, 2010 using Oanda currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar.</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://java.up2.co.kr/megapass_lite.htm">http://java.up2.co.kr/megapass_lite.htm</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"> (translated). (Visited March 18, 2010). </span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn19" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[19]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ePhone offers <i>Stockholm Opennet 1/1 Mbit/s</i> Search for 139 SEKa month.&nbsp;Converted March 26, 2010&nbsp;using Google currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar.</span></p>  <p><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://abonnemang.pricerunner.se/pr/bredband/jamfor.php#fs">http://abonnemang.pricerunner.se/pr/bredband/jamfor.php#fs</a>. (Search for Stockholm using post code 11351) (Visited March 26, 2010). </span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn20" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[20]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Service from </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">Chungwa Telecom FTTx. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Converted March 18, 2010 using Oanda currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://www.cht.com.tw/CHTFinalE/Web/Personal.php?CatID=898">http://www.cht.com.tw/CHTFinalE/Web/Personal.php?CatID=898</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"> ; </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><a href="http://www.cht.com.tw/PersonalCat.php?CatID=898&amp;Module=Fee,Describe">http://www.cht.com.tw/PersonalCat.php?CatID=898&amp;Module=Fee,Describe</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"> (translated). (Visited March 18, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn21" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[21]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Virgin Mobile offers <i>Up to 10 Mb Broadband </i>for £20 a month after a 3 month promotional period when not bundled with a virgin phone line. Converted March 26, 2010 using Google currency converter and rounded to the nearest dollar.&nbsp;<a href="http://allyours.virginmedia.com/websales/product.do?id=15208">http://allyours.virginmedia.com/websales/product.do?id=15208</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">.&nbsp;(Visited March 26, 2010).</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn22" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[22]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Verizon offers <i>Starter Plan</i> DSL service for $34.99 when not purchased with a Verizon phone line or TV bundle. Rounded to the nearest dollar. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Verizon DSL without home phone service. <a href="https://www22.verizon.com/Residential/HighSpeedInternet/Plans/Plans.htm">https://www22.verizon.com/Residential/HighSpeedInternet/Plans/Plans.htm</a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">. (Visited March 26, 2010.)</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn23" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[23]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; National Broadband Plan p. 37.</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn24" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[24]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <i>Home Broadband Adoption</i>.</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn25" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[25]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><i><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Broadband Adoption and Use in America </span></i><span style="font-size: 10pt;">p. 5 </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">and <i>Digital Nation</i> p. 13. </span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn26" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[26]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; See recommendation 4.2, National Broadband Plan p. 43</span></p></div>  <div id="ftn"><p><a name="_ftn27" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[27]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Yochai Benker et al., <i>Next Generation Connectivity: A Review of Broadband Internet Transitions and Plicy From Around the World</i> (Berkman Center for Internet and Society 2010). </span></p></div></div><p><a name="_ftn28" title="" href="#_ftnref"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><span>[28]</span></span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Benjamin Lennett and Sascha Meinrath, <i>Building a 21<sup>st</sup> Century Broadband Superhighway: A Concrete Build-out Plan to Bring High-Speed Fiber to Every Community</i> (New America Foundation 2009).</span>&nbsp;</p>

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