In the U.S., most DLLs are in monolingual English classrooms. Since they are not conducted in DLLs’ native languages, monolingual programs can be considered subtractive. Common monolingual program models include sheltered English instruction, structured English immersion, systematic English language development and English as a second language — also called English for speakers of other languages.
Sheltered English Instruction
Sheltered English instruction is a model often backed by supporters of the English-only movement. Under this model, DLLs are placed in mainstream classes with their native English-speaking peers, and teachers make intentional modifications to instruction in order to provide linguistic supports that help DLLs access the curriculum. Critics of sheltered English instruction assert that this model requires students to have a baseline level of English proficiency at the outset, and argue that it is therefore ineffective for newcomer students and other students who may have low literacy skills. These critics also claim that the necessary modifications are too much for individual classroom teachers to reliably manage, and consequently students are often left to their own devices.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is a type of sheltered English instruction model that integrates language and content instruction in order to make mainstream course content accessible to DLLs.
The SIOP model has also been used in additive bilingual models. For instance, it was adapted by the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) for use in TWI programs. The Two-Way SIOP Model (or the TWIOP model) modifies the SIOP model to provide language and content instruction in DLLs’ native language and in English. It also incorporates cultural objectives in both languages into instruction. Both SIOP and TWIOP provide training for instructors as well as professional development support.
Project GLAD (Guided Language Acquisition Design) provides instructors with specific teaching strategies to help DLLs develop basic conversational and academic English skills through intentional modifications to mainstream instruction. As another type of sheltered English instruction, its goal is for students to be able to access grade-level text and academic content. With this model, DLLs are placed in classes with English speakers and students at various levels of English language development. Teachers become trained in the Project GLAD model by certified trainers and can benefit from professional development opportunities.
Structured English Immersion
Structured English immersion is the model used for DLL instruction in Arizona. In this model, DLLs receive four hours each day of English language development (ELD), which aims to build their language skills as quickly as possible. The emphasis on language instruction means that students receive substantially less content instruction than their non-DLL peers.
Sheltered English instruction and Structured English immersion are the primary instructional models used in Arizona and California, which together enroll around one-third of American DLLs. Yet there is evidence that implementation of statewide English-only mandates in these states has made little difference in the academic outcomes of DLLs.
English as a Second Language
English as a second language (ESL) instruction differs from structured English instruction in that a trained ESL teacher works with DLLs to supplement and modify content instruction in mainstream classrooms and/or work with DLLs in English development outside of academic classes. This often occurs alongside a mainstream teacher (“push-in”) and/or outside of mainstream classrooms (“pull-out”). In both push-in and pull-out ESL models, the ESL teacher assists DLLs in developing their English skills and (usually) in accessing curricula in English. Some ESL teachers may speak the native languages of their DLLs and choose to use them in instruction. While this can be a beneficial teaching tool, bilingualism is not a requirement to become an ESL teacher.
Systematic English Language Development
The systematic English language development (ELD) model focuses on developing the social and academic language that students are not likely to learn outside of school or in other subject areas. The model uses a functional language approach that explicitly links language tasks to academic and real-world interactions students are likely to face. This program utilizes a pull-out model — ELLs have a separate class allocated for language instruction — and students are grouped based on their assessed English proficiency levels. Although most ELD classes are taught by ESL teachers, general education teachers can also become trained in ELD instruction.